The Fortezza Nuova was protected by medieval ramparts which reached the south-eastern corner of the city via a fortified bridge. The wall was pierced by the Porta San Marco, which is still visible in a later fortification. After the Florentines first captured Pisa in 1409, they built a large square rampart outside the gate, which they connected to the River Arno by means of a wall reinforced with circular towers which still runs along the river. Work continued until 1468 and was carried out in part to a design by Filippo Brunelleschi.
Part of the fortification was destroyed in the events that preceded and accompanied the second conquest by the Florentines (1509). Immediately afterwards it was restored and enlarged under the direction of Giuliano da Sangallo, who built a powerful system of bulwarks around the square tower. This was one of the earliest applications in Italy of a new defensive system that was conceived to counter the effects of the emerging artillery.
Today only the perimeter wall and a massive rampart on the south side are left of the old fortress. Inside the Fortezza Nuova is the Scotto Garden, named after Domenico Scotto, a ship-owner from Livorno who had it made at the end of the 18th century. In the 18th century the garden hosted the meetings of the Colonia Alfea (the Pisan Arcadia), and in the 1930s it became a public garden.
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