Montalcino is situated in southern Tuscany, in the province of Siena.
In the 13th century its castle was destroyed by the Senese army, because of a broken alliance. The castle remained under the protectorate of the Church and the Commune of Siena. Several insurrections brought Siena to a massive control over the castle, which was conquered again and then lost because Florence and Grosseto intervened in helping Montalcino.
During Montaperti battle, Montalcino allied with Florence against Siena, but it fell again under Siena control.
In 1269 Siena was defeated again at Colle Valdelsa and Montalcino was freed again. After the 1450 the castle became Sienese once more, and the fortifications were empowered to better protect the city center.
Montalcino became one of the most important centers of the Senese Republic territory. In the 16th century the town and the castle were subdued to the siege of the Medicean and Imperial army, in this war Siena was finally defeated. Many Senese citizens went to Montalcino where they recreated their lost Republic atmosphere. The town was the chief town of the non-Florentine territories until 1559 when it surrendered and swore fidelity to Cosimo de' Medici.
The castle has remained almost completely intact. The walls and the towers have walkable and intact watch-walks endowed of machicoulis, supported by bows on brackets with inverted pyramid form. The northern towers are open on the side facing the courtyard. The castle incorporated also an ancient little basilica, whose remains are still visible near the northeastern tower. The mighty Medicean rampart, added by Cosimo at the half of the 16th century, dominates the castle as an everlasting witness of the Medici's power, to which Montalcino definetely surrendered.
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